How Old Is the Earth?

Lion head in ivory, Kostenki 1. Despite being tiny, this sculpture is realistic and vivacious. Marl soft, chalky limestone , height 15 mm. Kunstkamera, St Petersburg Lion head. Ralph Frenken Source and text: A collection of stone tools from Kostenki 1. Note the classic Kostenki shouldered or tanged point on the extreme right of the middle row of the photo on the right – Don Photo: Vladimir Gorodnjanski Sculptures of mammoths, Kostenki 1. The domed head and sloping back of an adult mammoth is quite distinctive. Marl soft, chalky limestone and red ochre, height left 28 mm, height right 37 mm.

How Good Are Those Young-Earth Arguments?

In this context of changing and challenging market requirements, Gas Insulated Substation GIS has found a broad range of applications in power systems for more than two decades because of its high reliability, easy maintenance and small ground space requirement etc. SF6 has been of considerable technological interest as an insulation medium in GIS because of its superior insulating properties, high dielectric strength at relatively low pressure and its thermal and chemical stability.

SF6 is generally found to be very sensitive to field perturbations such as those caused by conductor surface imperfections and by conducting particle contaminants. The presence of contamination can therefore be a problem with gas insulated substations operating at high fields. If the effects of these particles could be eliminated, then this would improve the reliability of compressed gas insulated substation.

There, smelters melted them down and fed the factories steady streams of precious raw materials:

These are K-Ar data obtained on glauconite, a potassium-bearing clay mineral that forms in some marine sediment. Woodmorappe fails to mention, however, that these data were obtained as part of a controlled experiment to test, on samples of known age, the applicability of the K-Ar method to glauconite and to illite, another clay mineral. He also neglects to mention that most of the 89 K-Ar ages reported in their study agree very well with the expected ages.

Evernden and others 43 found that these clay minerals are extremely susceptible to argon loss when heated even slightly, such as occurs when sedimentary rocks are deeply buried. As a result, glauconite is used for dating only with extreme caution. The ages from the Coast Range batholith in Alaska Table 2 are referenced by Woodmorappe to a report by Lanphere and others Whereas Lanphere and his colleagues referred to these two K-Ar ages of and million years, the ages are actually from another report and were obtained from samples collected at two localities in Canada, not Alaska.

The Kostenki – Borshevo, – region on the Don River

Others allege that the Bible simply does not speak to this matter. Ross, see Van Bebber and Taylor The Basic Issue If it is true that the Bible is completely silent on this topic, then certainly we ought not to make an issue of it. But, is the Bible silent regarding the age of the earth and the human race? We pose these questions for reflection:

The isochron dating technique was thought to be infallible because it supposedly covered the assumptions about starting conditions and closed systems.

Ice-sheet dynamics Sampling the surface of Taku Glacier in Alaska. There is increasingly dense firn between surface snow and blue glacier ice. An ice core is a vertical column through a glacier, sampling the layers that formed through an annual cycle of snowfall and melt. At Summit Camp in Greenland, the depth is 77 m and the ice is years old; at Dome C in Antarctica the depth is 95 m and the age years. The bubbles disappear and the ice becomes more transparent.

Ice is lost at the edges of the glacier to icebergs , or to summer melting, and the overall shape of the glacier does not change much with time. These can be located using maps of the flow lines. These include soot, ash, and other types of particle from forest fires and volcanoes ; isotopes such as beryllium created by cosmic rays ; micrometeorites ; and pollen.

It can be up to about 20 m thick, and though it has scientific value for example, it may contain subglacial microbial populations , [7] it often does not retain stratigraphic information. In polar areas, the sun is visible day and night during the local summer and invisible all winter. It can make some snow sublimate , leaving the top inch or so less dense.

How accurate are Carbon-14 and other radioactive dating methods?

View images by clicking on link or reduced image: Each image opens into a new window. These primitive, medium sized apes lived in rain forests between 18 and 22 million years ago. This species and others such as Dryopithecus existed before the hominid line diverged on the path to humans. This lineage ancestral gibbons is believed to have diverged from the great ape and human lineages between 17 and 25 Mya Avers,

However, as soon as a plant or animal dies, the 14C atoms which decay are no longer replaced, so the amount of 14C in that once-living thing decreases as time goes on.

Type in the number, hit Xy, type in 0. They were not trying to figure out which stars could host a human habitable planet. They were trying to figure out which stars could host a planet that was not so hideously uninhabitable that no possible form of life could live there. In other words, many of these planets could host alien life forms but would quickly kill an unprotected human being. The equations were derived by me using an analysis of the Habcat database , and thus could be wildly inaccurate.

If you can find better figures, use them, but these are better than no figures at all. If my slide rule isn’t lying to me, this works out to an average distance between adjacent stars of 9. How wide is it? How many stars will it probably have? A sphere light years in diameter has a light year radius. Anderson cites a figure of about four million stars, which means one of us is a bit off the mark probably me. We are one more-or-less intelligent species in a universe that produces sophonts as casually as it produces snowflakes.


See this page in: Hungarian , Russian , Spanish People who ask about carbon 14C dating usually want to know about the radiometric [1] dating methods that are claimed to give millions and billions of years—carbon dating can only give thousands of years. People wonder how millions of years could be squeezed into the biblical account of history.

Until The Sun Dies.

Tertiary rocks Major subdivisions of the Tertiary System Classically, the Cenozoic Era was divided into the Tertiary and Quaternary periods, separated at the boundary between the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs formerly set at 1. In the International Commission on Stratigraphy ICS decided to recommend keeping the Tertiary and Quaternary periods as units in the geologic time scale but only as sub-eras within the Cenozoic Era. Under this paradigm , the Paleogene and Neogene span the interval formerly occupied by the Tertiary.

The Paleogene Period, the oldest of the three divisions, commences at the onset of the Cenozoic Era and includes the Paleocene Epoch 66 million to 56 million years ago , the Eocene Epoch 56 million to The Neogene spans the interval between the beginning of the Miocene Epoch 23 million to 5. The Quaternary Period begins at the base of the Pleistocene Epoch 2. Paleogene Period in geologic timeThe Paleogene Period and its subdivisions. International Commission on Stratigraphy ICS Precise stratigraphic positions for the boundaries of the various traditional Tertiary series were not specified by early workers in the 19th century.


There are 24 known isotopes of potassium, three of which occur naturally: Naturally occurring 40 K has a half-life of 1. It decays to stable 40 Ca by beta decay The conventional K-Ar dating method depends on the assumption that the rocks contained no argon at the time of formation and that all the subsequent radiogenic argon 40 Ar was quantitatively retained.

Minerals are dated by measurement of the concentration of potassium and the amount of radiogenic 40 Ar that has accumulated.

In the Tampico Embayment of eastern Mexico , thicknesses of more than 3, metres about 10, feet have been estimated for the Paleocene Velasco Formation alone, which developed under conditions of active subsidence and associated rapid deposition.

Moon Dust and the Age of the Solar System Answers in Genesis , the leading young-earth creationist ministry, disowns cosmic dust arguments. The most amazing thing about the cosmic dust argument is that it is still being used! It has coasted along on obsolete evidence, and nothing but obsolete evidence, for the last 25 years!! It nicely illustrates how creationists borrow from each other and never do any outside reading.

The obsolescence of this argument has been brought out in numerous debates and published in countless books, journals, and newsletters. It can be discovered by anyone who exercises his or her library card. It’s not a state secret! What does it take to get through to the creationist brain?? The earliest use of the cosmic dust argument that Van Till Van Till et al, could find was in an article by Harold Slusher, which was published in the June issue of Creation Research Society Quarterly.

How can radioactive decay be used to date rocks?

Radiometric dating In , shortly after the discovery of radioactivity , the American chemist Bertram Boltwood suggested that lead is one of the disintegration products of uranium, in which case the older a uranium-bearing mineral the greater should be its proportional part of lead. Analyzing specimens whose relative geologic ages were known, Boltwood found that the ratio of lead to uranium did indeed increase with age.

After estimating the rate of this radioactive change, he calculated that the absolute ages of his specimens ranged from million to 2. Though his figures were too high by about 20 percent, their order of magnitude was enough to dispose of the short scale of geologic time proposed by Lord Kelvin. Versions of the modern mass spectrometer were invented in the early s and s, and during World War II the device was improved substantially to help in the development of the atomic bomb.

Soon after the war, Harold C.

He only said, “Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history.

Atomic Energy Act of , secs. These regulations are issued under the Atomic Energy Act of , as amended, and the Energy Reorganization Act of , as amended. However, nothing in this part shall be construed as limiting actions that may be necessary to protect health and safety. The regulations in this part apply to persons licensed by the Commission to receive, possess, use, transfer, or dispose of byproduct, source, or special nuclear material or to operate a production or utilization facility under parts 30 through 36, 39, 40, 50, 52, 60, 61, 63, 70, or 72 of this chapter, and in accordance with 10 CFR As used in this part: Absorbed dose means the energy imparted by ionizing radiation per unit mass of irradiated material.

The units of absorbed dose are the rad and the gray Gy. Accelerator-produced radioactive material means any material made radioactive by a particle accelerator.

Potassium-argon (K-Ar) dating

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